Rum River Central Regional Park Riverbank Stabilization

The Anoka Conservation District partnered with Anoka County Parks to stabilize 310' of eroding riverbank within Rum River Central Regional Park. Prior to the project, the bank was severely eroding and undermining sections of a paved trail. The stabilization project is now complete and included the following elements:

  • Minimal riprap at the bottom of the slope within the zone of frequent water level fluctuation where vegetation does not grow well,
  • Grading above the riprap to the top of the slope (3H:1V), seeding with native vegetation, and installation of an erosion control blanket,
  • Relocation of the paved trail to ensure sufficient separation between the trail and the new top of slope, and
  • Dormant willow stakes were installed in November 2019 as the final phase of the project.

Stabilization of the bank will prevent 100 tons of sediment annually from entering the Rum River. Multiple State and local funding sources were used to complete the project.

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Lessard-Sams Outdoor Heritage Council Recommends Funds for Rum River Stabilization Projects

The Lessard-Sams Outdoor Heritage Council is recommending $952,000 from the Outdoor Heritage Fund for ACD to stabilize eroding Rum Riverbanks utilizing habitat-building, bioengineering approaches over the next three years. Bioengineering techniques stabilize and armor eroding riverbanks in a way that both protects the bank from further erosion and provides traversable habitat for wildlife. These techniques rely on using natural materials such as tree trunks and root wads, in-stream rock weirs, native plantings and tree staking, gradual slope grading, and minimal hard armoring where necessary. Current erosion along streambanks, as well as traditional armoring techniques like riprap, result in a wall or barrier to wildlife. The bioengineering techniques that will be employed by ACD in the Rum River will eliminate those barriers and provide additional habitat for all kinds of wildlife.

ACD has identified over twenty eroding banks along the Rum River in Anoka County that it will be seeking to address with these funds. It is anticipated that four to eight sites will be stabilized with the $952,000 from the LSOHC and an additional $236,000 in local funds from Anoka County and the Upper and Lower Rum River Watershed Management Organizations. Anoka County has pledged $442,000 in Rum River stabilization matching funds over the next five years. The remaining funds will be used as match for future grant applications.

The Lessard-Sams Outdoor Heritage Council has made the funding recommendation to the Minnesota Legislature, who will draft final bill language during the 2020 legislative session. ACD will begin reaching out to landowners with identified eroding banks suitable for these stabilization techniques after the funding is finalized.

  Example photo of an eroding Rum Riverbank stabilized with bioengineering techniques. This project was the result of the continuing partnership between ACD and Anoka County Parks.

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Leaving a Legacy on the Land through Easements

Written by: Jamie Schurbon, Watershed Projects Manager

When I was young, there was a woodlot in the neighborhood where kids, including me, roamed. It was along the river, where there were frogs to be caught. We built forts. We played games. It felt like 100 acres, but in hindsight was probably just a few. That natural area was, apart from the people, a most memorable part of the neighborhood.

What's the best part of your neighborhood? Perhaps it's a woodlot on your own property. Or a wetland the provides a little privacy. Or just a few big mature trees. We get joy from living in natural surroundings big or small. When these things are lost, the neighborhood seems to sigh in disappointment (and some folks get downright upset).

Conservation easements are one tool available to landowners who want to ensure their land is kept natural for the long term, as a legacy for the community. Conservation easements pay landowners in exchange for a restriction on certain types of changes, such as clearing and building, to the land in the future. The easement runs with the land and applies to future owners.

The newest easement program available in Anoka County focuses on properties along the Rum River. Riverbank properties are critical to the scenic and recreational qualities of the river, as well as the river's ecological quality. The program pays 60% of the assessed value of the land. You set the easement boundaries. You retain ownership. The land does not become open to the public.

Easements are purchased strategically. While many lands are eligible, not all are competitive candidates. Those that score highest are parts of larger high quality natural areas and will not become "islands" within development. Easements should help retain community character and be consistent with anticipated growth.

If you are interested in having your land considered for a conservation easement, please contact Carrie Taylor at 763-434-2030 ext. 19 or This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

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Landscaping for Wildlife

This may not seem like the time of year to be planning for habitat improvements on your property, but if you want to take advantage of good prices on bare root trees and shrubs, now is the time to order. Anoka Conservation District's annual tree sale is a great place to start.

When asked by property owners what they can do to attract wildlife to their property, I start with the basic; 1) minimize mowing, and 2) provide food, water, shelter, and plenty of space.


Food: Flowers, fruit, buds, twigs, seeds, nectar, and foliage are food for many of our local birds, insects, and small mammals. These little critters are in turn, food for larger animals. If you build from the bottom up, and create habitat for the smallest creatures, the larger ones will follow and your habitat will be more stable. Planting trees, shrubs, flowering plants, and grasses will all get you heading in the right direction. Use native species to ensure they attract wildlife from this area.

Water: If you have a natural water source, like a pond, wetland, lake or river, you are all set. Flowing water attracts the most wildlife, but still water works well too. If you plan to add an artificial water source, everything from a simple bird bath to a fancy water feature like a lined pond with flowing water and pump, will bring in everything from birds and butterflies, to frogs and deer.


Shelter: Shelter comes in natural and manufactured forms. Bird and bat houses are options, as are wood or rock piles. Consider leaving fallen trees to lay on the ground or dead standing trees to remain, if they aren't a safety concern. Plant trees and shrubs for nesting. Even tall native grasses provide good cover for deer and birds to bed down in.

Space: Animals have varied needs in terms of space. Some defend large areas while others live in harmony with close neighbors. Whether or not you have a small urban oasis or 40 acres of wild open space, if you provide food, water, and shelter, it will attract wildlife to fill the available space. Curb your expectations to the limits of your property and do a little research on any particular species you are hoping to draw in.

Some landscape features you may want to consider:

  • butterfly gardens
  • frog ponds
  • native prairie gardens
  • shrub groves
  • rock or brush piles
  • bird baths
  • feeders
  • pollinator garden
  • hummingbird garden

For a complete brochure on the topic, visit;  https://www.anokaswcd.org/index.php/backyard-habitat.html

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1404 Hits

Minnesota's Changing Climate

Flooding in a Southwestern MN Ag. Field

Minnesota is one of the states most impacted by climate change. Official precipitation and temperature data has been collected in Minnesota from 1895 through today, showing some striking statistics about our changing climate:

  • 13% increase in the size of the heaviest annual rainfall.
  • Since 2000, rains of more than 6" are four times more frequent than the previous 30 years prior.
  • 65% increase in the number of 3" rains.
  • Average temperatures in Minnesota have warmed by 3˚F since 1895.
  • Overall, Minnesota's climate is warmer and wetter.


These changes are impacting Minnesota's wildlife, forests, water quality, infrastructure, and outdoor recreation (especially winter sports). Below are some links to MN DNR infographic GIFs that shows the change to our 30-year average winter temperature and 30-year average yearly precipitation:

 

Sinkhole in Duluth Following a 7"+ Rainfall
As you can see, Minnesota's winters are warming dramatically, with the 9˚ contour moving  north by as much as 150 miles. Similarly, the 26" contour for precipitation has migrated roughly 100 miles to the Northwest.

We witnessed the impact of elevated precipitation in 2012 when the most damaging flood in Duluth's recorded history began when heavy rains fell over already saturated ground on June 19th and 20th. At the Duluth National Weather Service (NWS) the rainfall total for those two days was 7.24 inches. A NWS volunteer observer in Two Harbors recorded the storm's largest value of 10.45 inches in 24 hours.

The aftermath included millions of dollars of insurance losses to repair roads, bridges, homes and businesses. Many homes foundations were damaged extensively and the houses were razed. One state highway (MN 23) was closed for 3 years while it was repaired. The City of Duluth has had to adapt their stormwater infrastructure to withstand events that 30 years ago were considered 500-year events, but now happen regularly. In June 2018, just southeast of Duluth, the area received up to 10" of rain and once again damaged Highway 23.

Here in Anoka County, we've witnessed a similar story in 2019, with all of the monitored lakes, rivers, and streams in the County reaching historic water level averages for the year. This increase in precipitation only solidifies the need for comprehensive watershed management to make sure that our infrastructure and waterways can handle the increased erosion and flow produced by this additional rain. 

 Interested in learning more? Check out MN Pollution Control Agency's Climate Change in Minnesota webpage or the MN Department of Natural Resources Climate Data

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1828 Hits

New Outreach Collaborative Builds Lasting Partnerships in Anoka County

Investment in water education is vital for the continued health of the environment and people. By building strong new partnerships, the Water Resource Outreach Collaborative (WROC) in Anoka County is doing just that.

The purpose of this shared outreach and engagement partnership is to inform community residents, businesses, staff, and decision-makers about issues affecting local waterbodies and groundwater resources. Through enhancement of existing outreach programming and collaborative development of new programming, WROC engages people in activities and individual behavior changes that will positively impact the health of our surface and groundwater.

Through collaboration, WROC partners are able to maximize the effectiveness of their water outreach. Partners benefit from regular resource sharing, consistent messaging, and reduced duplication of effort. Outreach efficiency is maximized because partners are able to pool their resources to develop professional materials with minimal financial stress on any one organization. Many water health outreach topics are common between partners, so having a centralized group to facilitate delivery of those topics has proven vital. Finally, through increased communication between partners, there is greater cross-coordination and promotion of events, thus extending the reach of individual partner programs.

Since January 2019, Anoka County's Water Resource Outreach Collaborative has created new resources including a Conservation Resource Library and a brochure, display, and animated video on groundwater. In addition, the Collaborative has had a presence at 40 community outreach events throughout the county and facilitated or collaborated with partners to host 22 workshops, presentations, and trainings. Notable activities from the past year include presenting to over 630 5th graders in 7 schools in the county, hosting the best-attended private well and septic system training in with 58 attendees compared to 8-12 attendees in previous years, and hosting two smart salting trainings for 85 road maintenance staff from several previously untrained municipalities including Oak Grove, Columbus, Nowthen, Linwood Township, St. Francis, and Ramsey.

In the future, the Anoka County Water Resource Outreach Collaborative will continue partnering to reach new and diverse audiences with messages of water health and conservation. The WROC partnership is an investment in the future of water education in our area. Prioritizing public education is critical to empowering everyone to act as water stewards and create a healthier world for future generations.

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Cut back on Salt to Protect Minnesota’s Infrastructure, Water Quality, and Aquatic Wildlife

The Twin Cities Metro applies 350,000 tons of road salt every year, but have you ever wondered where it goes when winter ends?

Stormwater and snowmelt carry dissolved road salt into lakes, streams, and groundwater when winter thaws out. Chloride, a major part of road salt compounds, is especially stubborn in water. Once it dissolves, there is no feasible method to remove chloride from water, and stormwater treatment solutions like stormwater ponds and rain gardens are ineffective at removing chloride. Instead, chloride gradually accumulates in our water bodies, harming fish and other aquatic life. The corrosive nature of road salt also contributes between $350 million and $1.2 billion in infrastructure costs each year to the Metro area alone.

What can we do about it?

Here are some helpful tips you can use to make your driveways and sidewalks safer and better for the environment this winter:

Shovel!

Salt is never a substitute for shoveling. Shovel your snow and ice first so that salt is only used for melting ice stuck to the ground.

Salt!

Traditional salt (sodium chloride) does not melt ice when the temperature is below 15 degrees Fahrenheit. Use a low-temperature alternative such as magnesium chloride or calcium chloride to melt ice at lower temperatures or use sand to add traction. There is no such thing as an "environmentally friendly" salt, so it's best to stick to salt that will work in the given range of temperatures.

Scatter!

Did you know you only need a 12-oz. mug of salt to effectively de-ice a 20-foot driveway or 10 sidewalk squares? When applying salt, aim to leave 2" between grains.

Sweep!

Sweeping up leftover salt and reusing it later is a great way to save money and limit the amount of salt getting into nearby waterways.


 Do you hire a contractor to maintain a sidewalk, driveway, or parking lot? Check out the MPCA's list of Smart Salting certificate holders to find a contractor trained on best practices for winter maintenance: https://www.pca.state.mn.us/sites/default/files/p-tr1-01.xlsx

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848 Hits

What we wish we knew: lessons for rain garden implementation

Over the last decade the Anoka Conservation District (ACD) has been involved in the design and construction of over 100 rain gardens in Anoka County. While the overwhelming majority fall closer to the 'ideal' end of the spectrum, we've been party to a few on the 'nasty' end as well. Properly functioning rain gardens often go unnoticed because they blend in with other landscape amenities. In contrast, the small fraction of 'nasty' rain gardens get the public's attention with nasty smells and mosquito problems. Rest assured, we've learned from our mistakes, refined our process, corrected the problematic rain gardens, and can confidently say we're now able to avoid the 'nasties'.

The lessons learned over the years have improved every aspect of rain garden location, design, installation, maintenance, and follow-up. These are our suggestions for other organizations designing and installing rain gardens.

Failed rain garden that doesn't drain between rain events

Design

  • For a standard rain garden, the water table should be at least five feet below the bottom of the garden. This will require an eight-foot-deep soil boring during the design process because the bottom of the garden is often two to three feet below the original ground elevation. Rain gardens with shallower water tables are feasible, but require an underdrain to function properly.
  • Soils should have high infiltration rates, generally one to three inches per hour. Rain gardens can be built in soils with lower infiltration rates, but may require an underdrain or a ponding depth shallower than 12".
  • If an underdrain is needed, install a control mechanism that allows variable draw down rates and levels. This provides a mechanism to capitalize on natural infiltration that may increase as the deep root structure of the native plant community matures and creates pathways for infiltration.
  • Water must be able to get into the garden consistently, predictably, and without causing erosion. The curb-cut should be sized to safely pass sufficient water volumes.
  • Utilizing a retaining wall along the back of the garden can improve the aesthetic appeal and allow the garden to store more water. Rain garden side slopes should be no steeper than 3:1. Therefore, for every foot of wall height, three feet of rain garden bottom is gained. In many cases this simple addition more than doubles the size of the garden.
  • Consider using a pretreatment chamber. A pretreatment chamber functions like a filter, capturing floatables like leaves, trash, seeds, and sediment to ensure rain gardens are able to properly receive water and dry between storms
Rain garden mid-construction, with a retaining wall and intact curb
Location
  • Rain gardens should be sited where they will capture runoff from a sizeable contributing drainage area that would otherwise make it into a priority water resource.
  • They should treat stormwater that isn't already routed to a stormwater pond or other installation for stormwater management.
  • They should be strategically located on properties where they will quickly fill during storms and quickly drain between storms.
  • They need to be located where they won't interfere with utility lines. Utility companies have minimum cover requirements over lines that may not be met following rain garden excavation. While some utilities like cable lines can be moved or lowered for a relatively low expense, others like gas and electrical lines can be cost-prohibitive to relocate when they conflict with the proposed rain garden location.
  • If a rain garden is installed in an area where the road routinely floods over the curbs, water will flow into the rain garden over the sides and cause erosion. It will also result in deeper water than intended, which will take longer to drain out.
  • If a rain garden receives water from a large neighborhood with non-natural runoff sources like irrigation systems or sump pump discharge, the rain garden may never have the chance to drain completely.
Rain garden pretreatment chamber

Installation

  • Curb-cut rain gardens are one of the few conservation practices where landowners volunteer to use their property to treat runoff from other properties. The landowner volunteering contributes relatively little to the problem and benefits relatively little from the solution. They also commonly assume maintenance responsibility for 10 years. For these reasons, local government should consider covering 100% of the construction costs.
  • Avoid equipment traffic within the garden.
  • Check soil infiltration rates. If they are under the design specification, loosen soil throughout the
  • garden with a four-foot auger.
  • Plant gardens in the spring and early summer, not in the fall.
  • Lay no more than three inches of mulch.
  • If possible, consider leaving the curb intact until the plants are established and then complete the curb-cut. Minimally, when installing a curb-cut rain garden as a retrofit, leave the curb intact until the basin is completed. This ensures the basin is stable and ready to receive runoff as soon as the curb-cut and apron are installed.
  • Install informative temporary signage during construction and permanent signage upon project completion that explains the value and function of the rain garden.
Ideal rain garden

Maintenance

This is a list of suggestions that can be provided to a homeowner after installation:

  • Get your neighborhood involved! If your neighborhood has several rain gardens, try to schedule a periodic neighborhood cleanup day.
  • Mulch will break down and should be refreshed every couple years.
  • Stay on top of weeding. Err on the side of pulling too much.
  • Homeowners should not be afraid to experiment with the plants in their rain garden. Try using native plants to encourage pollinator presence!
  • Pretreatment chambers should be cleaned out after each rain event. This should take no more than a few minutes.
  • Remove excess leaves in the fall. Having a few leaves is great for catching sediment and creating critter habitat, but too many leaves will create mats and slow down water infiltration.
  • Regularly remove sediment that makes it past the pretreatment chamber.
Community rain garden cleanup in Anoka county

Follow-Up

  • The sponsoring local government should connect annually with homeowners to remind them of maintenance needs, expectations, and flexibility.
  • Make sure homeowners know who to call if they experience problems.
  • Consider providing a maintenance program to help with plant replenishment or other incentive to keep gardens well maintained.
  • After the 10-year life of the garden, consider a refresh. Hire professionals to remove all plants, mulch, and accumulated sediment and debris, and power wash the retaining wall and pretreatment chamber. Then, add new mulch and replant, salvaging mature plants whenever possible. This relatively inexpensive investment can buy another 10 years of function.

When done right, rain gardens are an effective and beautiful method for combating pollution in lakes and streams, replenishing groundwater, and creating pollinator habitat. However, not every property or every homeowner is ideally suited to have a rain garden. While professionals at ACD can assess whether or not a property is a viable candidate, only the homeowner can decide if they are up to the task of maintaining a rain garden.

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4605 Hits

What in the World is a Rain Garden?

  Rain gardens have popped up like weeds throughout the Twin Cities over the last decade to mitigate stormwater pollution in lakes, rivers, and streams. Despite their prevalence, the function and purpose of these little curbside gardens remain a mystery for many folks.

Downspout rain garden

Rain Garden Benefits:

Cities are very dirty. When it rains, stormwater picks up everything from feces to the motor oil that your neighbors spilled on their driveway. Many older neighborhoods were developed without stormwater treatment, so pollutant-laden runoff from roads, houses, driveways, and parking lots makes its way directly into rivers, lakes, and streams. Stormwater doesn't end up in a wastewater treatment facility or septic system like the water that drains out of your bathtub.

When functioning correctly, rain gardens protect natural water bodies from polluted stormwater, reduce flooding, recharge groundwater, and provide habitat for local pollinators. Rain gardens can be built to any size or shape to fit into the landscape of old neighborhoods where space is limited. They are relatively inexpensive to design and construct and can be maintained by homeowners who agree to take on that responsibility.

To treat all of the water in a neighborhood, it may be necessary to pepper the neighborhood with many small rain gardens, or put in a few larger gardens depending on available space and landowner interest. A well-functioning rain garden will dry out within 48 hours after a rain event, which keeps the plants healthy and prevents creation of mosquito habitat.

  Rain Garden Types:

There are two basic types of rain gardens, those built to treat water exiting a gutter downspout, and those built to treat road runoff. The first type, called a downspout rain garden, can easily be installed by a homeowner. This type of rain garden can prevent flooding around downspouts and allow rainwater to recharge groundwater.

The second type is called a curb-cut rain garden because an opening is cut into a roadside curb to allow water to flow off the road into the rain garden. When the rain garden has filled to the brim, the stormwater flowing along the curb will pass by and flow into the storm drain as it did prior to installing the rain garden. Curb-cut rain gardens are much larger, more complex, and should be designed and installed by professionals. Curb-cut rain gardens are more cost-effective because they only treat water that would definitely have made it into the stormwater system. For this reason, they are the only type of rain garden for which Anoka Conservation District currently provides assistance.

While traditional curb-cut rain gardens are built with the expectation that water will drain through the soil, some rain gardens are built in conditions that don't allow for water to drain quickly enough. In this scenario, an underdrain would be installed below the rain garden. The underdrain re-directs excess water from the rain garden into the street's stormwater drain to prevent the rain garden from flooding.

Thriving curb-cut rain garden that easily drains within 48 hours
Failed rain garden that does not drain between storms

Rain Garden Pitfalls:

Unfortunately, some rain gardens don't work as intended. Due to poor planning, faulty design, shoddy construction, or a lack of maintenance, some rain gardens fail to properly fill or drain. When done right, rain gardens are an effective and aesthetically pleasing method for combating pollution in lakes and streams, replenishing groundwater, and creating pollinator habitat. However, not every property or every homeowner is ideally suited to have a rain garden. While professionals at ACD can assess whether or not a property is a viable candidate, only the homeowner can decide if they are up to the task of maintaining a rain garden.
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2744 Hits

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